With Trans-Equatorial Propagation (TEP), zones of high ionization occur either side of the geomagnetic equator in the F layer of the ionosphere. What makes the mode so interesting is that it can allow propagation on the VHF bands from 50 MHz to 144 MHz.
As the zones of ionization is roughly 400kms above ground level, the propagation paths achieved are in the region of 4000 to 5000 kms, much greater than what might be usual with Sporadic-E.
TEP propagation normally peaks around the equinox and there have been some interesting contacts made recently between the south of Brazil and stations in the Caribbean.
One such example was a recent contact on 144 MHz between FG8OJ in Guadeloupe and PY2PAL in Brazil. On the map above, the position of the actual equator is shown in Blue while the Geomagnetic Equator is shown in Red.
You can hear the SSB contact on 144.299 MHz below...
Amazing TEP on 2m. Qso with PY2PAL 4455 km pic.twitter.com/GmrD7VkEVC— ＦＧ８ＯＪ🏝️🛰️🌑 (@FG8OJ) October 11, 2020
Note the curious warble on the signal. The distance was 4455 kms which is pretty impressive for 2-metres.